Book an Appointment [ Click Here ]

PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. It’s a molecular biology technique used to amplify (create many copies of) a specific segment of DNA. PCR is a fundamental tool in various fields of biology and genetics, including research, diagnostics, forensic analysis, and more.

The PCR process involves a series of temperature cycles to achieve DNA amplification. Here’s a simplified overview of the steps:

  1. Denaturation: The DNA sample is heated to a high temperature (usually around 95°C) to separate the DNA strands, breaking the hydrogen bonds between the complementary base pairs.
  2. Annealing: The temperature is lowered to allow short DNA primers (specific sequences of nucleotides) to bind to the single-stranded DNA template at locations flanking the target segment. These primers serve as starting points for DNA synthesis.
  3. Extension: A DNA polymerase enzyme synthesizes a new DNA strand complementary to the template strand, starting from the primers. This step occurs at a temperature of around 72°C, which is optimal for the DNA polymerase.

By repeating these temperature cycles (usually 20-40 times), the amount of the target DNA segment is exponentially increased, resulting in a large number of copies. The final product of a successful PCR reaction is a collection of DNA fragments, all of which correspond to the target segment of interest.

PCR has been a transformative technology in molecular biology and has paved the way for advancements in genetic research and diagnostics.